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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (if this should be the case an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal (Chicago Notation). The text uses a 12-point font; employs italics where appropriate; all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.
  • The author hereby agrees to publish his/her text uploaded to this website under This license does not apply to the media referenced in the article, which are subject to the individual rights owner's terms.
  • If the submission uses copyrighted material from other sources (including the web), permission has been obtained for its use; the sources are appropriately noted in the text. The images and clips are provided with appropriate captions with descriptions ("Courtesy of").
  • Open Access journals depend on public funding. Apparatus needs your support in locating funding bodies which have set aside finances or APCs for your Open Access publications without any embargo. This could be your university library, your department, or the European Commission funding your research to be published in OA. 

    Subsidies required to fund your publications in EUR (*Note: Article Processing Charges apply only to articles; reviews are exempt from APC):

    Band A: 700 (for articles up to 7000 words which are easy to handle)

    Band B: 900 (if one of the below mentioned requirements apply)

    Band C: 1100 (if two or more than two of the below mentioned apply)

    Special requirements:

    - longer than 7000 words (approximately 15 pages)

    - in need of major language and/or copy editing

    - more than 6 images

    - complicated tables

    - video / audio clips

    On request, we may exempt you from participation in publishing costs or reduce the amount of the contribution. If you have any questions please write to our editors ( and we will help you to undertake the steps needed to support your Open Access publication. Thank you!

  • For future grantees and independent scholars who are not based at an institution. If you apply for grants you can in most cases include publication subsidies or APCs – please consider this option in the future! If you do not have access to an institution, please do not despair. In this case we can grant a reduction or issue a waiver.

Author Guidelines

Complete manual can be viewed and downloaded here.

Library of Congress Transliteration Styles for Cyrillic.

  • A style sheet Template is available on request

  • Submit files in *.doc, *.docx or *.odt format.

  • If writing in English write in British English.

  • Use "Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (author-date)" referencing system – do not put bibliographical references in the endnotes. Instead: Mikhail Bakhtin (1981: 15) argues that so and so holds. For more detailed guidelines see Also, please consult the latest issue of Apparatus for examples of referencing. 

  • Mark the works of the same author from the same year with alphabet letters next to the year, e.g. Tom Gunning (2006a, 2006b) speaks of “Cinema of Attractions”.

  • Use endnotes with Arabic numerals and not footnotes.

  • Use endnotes only in the body of the text and not in the title and/or abstract.

  • When using endnotes position them immediately after the full stop and not within the sentence.

  • Use font Times New Roman.

  • If the sentence is not the last one in the paragraph use single space after full stop. If it is the last one in the paragraph do not use any spaces after full stop.

  • Use Oxford commas, e.g. one, two, and three.

  • If writing in English set the language to English (United Kingdom). However, for any citations (both in-text and displayed ones) set the language to the language of the citation.

  • If writing in German set the language to German (Germany). However, for any citations (both in-text and displayed ones) set the language to the language of the citation.

  • If writing in another language, please set the language for your text accordingly.

  • Limit yourself to two levels of headings and use word functions in the style section to specify the heading hierarchies.

  • Indent paragraphs except section headings, first paragraphs in the section, and paragraphs following displayed citations.

  • For displayed citations all of the lines should be indented.

  • Do not insert empty lines.   

  • Use the Library of Congress transliteration system without diacritics for English ( and scientific transliteration for all other languages ( For example, in English the Russian word for man is transliterated “chelovek” and in all other languages “čelovek”. The surname of the author of War and Peace in English is “Tolstoi” and in all other languages “Tolstoj”.

  • Names of authors, artists, etc. should appear in full on first occasion of their appearance in the body of the text. On subsequent occasions only surnames should be cited in the body of the text. In bibliographical author-date parentheses for there should always only be a surname: (Bakhtin 1981). 

  • When referencing an artwork for the first time provide the original name next to the translation in the language you are writing, and author and year in parentheses, e.g. Les Demoiselles d’Avignon / The Young Ladies of Avignon (Pablo Picasso, 1907).

  • When referencing films for the first time provide the country of production as well, e.g. Der Student von Prag / The Student of Prague (Stellan Rye, 1913, Germany).

  • Use the official translation of the film title as it was distributed.

  • Use the original title of the artwork (films included) for all later occurrences.

  • All quotes of 3 lines in length or over as well as those of special importance should be quoted in a separate paragraph as displayed citations. Here quotation marks should not be used.

  • When quoting within a paragraph use double quotation marks. Use single quotation marks for quotes within these quotes.

  • When quoting within a sentence do not include the final punctuation mark, e.g. Jane Smith (1929: 20) claims that “the film was a financial failure”.

  • When quotations are a complete sentence under 3 lines include the final punctuation mark before the closing quotation mark, e.g. “The film was a financial failure.”

  • When quoting within a sentence mark the change of capitals if necessary, e.g.: “[H]is house was on the square” from “After a walk he told him that his house was on the square”.

  • When omitting parts of quotations use […], e.g. “After […] he told him that his house was on the square.”

  • Whenever possible quote in the original language. Always provide a translation (existing or your own and specify the original language).

  • For each translation specify the author of the translation.

  • When quoting replicate the typography, i.e. do not change the italics, special capitalizations, etc.  Specify in the brackets that the typography has been replicated, e.g. “[…]” (typography in the original).

  • When quoting in the original language use quotation marks characteristic of the language the text is in, not of the language the quotation is from. For instance, if the text is in English use “ ”. If it is in German use „ “. If it is in Russian use « ».

  • When quoting in the original language retain the original language script, e.g. Tolstoi’s novel begins with the following line: “Все счастливые семьи похожи друг на друга, каждая несчастливая семья несчастлива по-своему.” Do not use italics for anything but book, film, and artwork titles.

  • Use quotation marks for titles of poems and articles.

  • Avoid using abbreviations, e.g. “Second World War” instead of “WWII”, “Soviet Union” instead of “USSR”, “do not” instead of “don’t”, and “1920s and 1930s” instead of “1920s/1930s”.

  • For dates use the following format: Month DD, YYYY, e.g. Second World War began on September 1, 1939.

  • Write “western” and “eastern” if simply speaking of cultural phenomena, e.g. western academics. When speaking of geographical entities write “West” and “East”, e.g. East Europe.

  • Write numbers up to twenty as words and thereafter as numbers, e.g. eighteen, nineteen, twenty, and 21.

  • If including figures, videos or audio please attach a list of all of these in a separate word file. Please insert for each audio and video example a placeholder (e.g. a screenshot) at the required position. In case of figures please include them in the word file at the required position, without using Word’s built-in cropping functions. Only include cropped and edited pictures in the document. Do not use i.e. Word’s image editing functions.

  • Next to inserting figures into the text file please submit them also as a separate file in jpg format and save figures as Fig1.jpg, Fig2.jpg, etc.

  • Submit all audio and video clips as separate files. All video and audio content will be published on a third party platform (such as vimeo) if legally possible.

  • Save video clips as either as *.flv or *.avi, e.g Video1.flv, Video2.avi, etc.

  • Save audio clips as Audio1.mp3, Audio2.mp3, etc.

  • Authors are responsible for obtaining and documenting permission to use images and clips. Each image, clip, etc. needs to be accompanied by a clear statement on the permission of use. Specification of these permissions need to be in the format specified in the section “Captions” below.

  • When citing a particular line from the film use h:mm:ss format, e.g. “Toto, I’ve a feeling we’re not in Kansas anymore” (0:19:57).

  • Follow the examples from the template for bibliographical references.

  • Transliterate all of the bibliographical references to the language of the text.



  • Do not exceed 12,000 words (including endnotes, bibliography, abstracts, etc.).

  • Provide abstracts in 2 languages (for details see the Template).

  • Provide accompanying keywords.

  • Provide acknowledgements if needed.

  • Provide affiliation details (alternatively write Independent Scholar).

  • Provide contact details and a short biography (no more than 150 words) at the end of the text.



  • should not exceed 2000 words (including endnotes and bibliography)

  • Do not use any headings in reviews. 

  • At the beginning of the text provide the reviewed work title, work author name, bibliographical information, price, cover details, and the number of pages. 

  • At the end of the text provide name, affiliation and contact details (alternatively write Independent Scholar)

  • Provide accompanying keywords.



Figure 1. Name Surname, Title, Year. Materials or media (if applicable), dimensions (if applicable). Location (if applicable). Photo by Photographer_Name Photographer_Surname (if applicable). Image courtesy of ___.

Figure 1. Ilya Kabakov, The Big Archive, 1990. Mixed-media installation, 25.7 x 35 m. Museum of Contemporary Art, New York. Image courtesy of the author.


Figure 2. Caption from: Name_of_the_director Surname_of_the_director, Film Title, Year. Caption courtesy of ___.

Figure 2. Caption from: F. W. Murnau, Der letzte Mann, 1924. Caption courtesy of Kino Video.


Video 1. Clip from: Name_of_the_director Surname_of_the_director, Film Title, Year. Clip courtesy of ___.

Video 1. Clip from: Dziga Vertov, Entuziazm (Simfonija Donbassa), 1930. Clip courtesy of Österreichisches Filmmuseum.


Audio 1. Clip from: Name_of_the_director Surname_of_the_director, Film Title, Year. Clip courtesy of ___.

Audio 1. Clip from: Emir Kusturica, Dom za vešanje, 1988. Clip courtesy of the author.


References: use level one heading

Organization/Author. YYYY. Title of the Publication. Website_link. Month DD.

Baltic Worlds. 2014. Hello Again, Sovietology. August 20.


Surname, Name. YYYY. “Title of the Newspaper Article.” Website_link. Month DD.

Johnson, Scott F. 2013. “If It's Not Online and Free Then It's Not Published.” September 3.


Surname, Name. YYYY. Title of the Book. Place of Publication.

Bulgakova, Oksana. 2010. Sovetskii slukhoglaz. Kino i ego organy chuvstv. Moskva.


Surname, Name. YYYY. Title of the Book. Edited by Name_of_editor Surname_of_editor. Translated by Name_of_translator Surname_of_translator. Place of Publication.

Bakhtin, Mikhail. 1981. The Dialogic Imagination. Four Essays. Edited by Michael Holquist. Translated by Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin.


Surname, Name. YYYY. “Title of the Chapter in an Edited Volume.” In Title of the Book, edited by Name_of_author Surname_of_author, Page_Number_Range. Place of Publication.

Gunning, Tom. 2006a. “Attractions. How They Came into the World.” In The Cinema of Attractions Reloaded, edited by Wanda Strauven, 31-40. Amsterdam.

Gunning, Tom. 2006b. “Modernity and Cinema. A Culture of Shocks and Flows.” In Cinema and Modernity, edited by Murray Pomerance, 297-315. New Brunswick, NJ.

Stam, Robert. 2005. “Introduction. The Theory and Practice of Adaptation.” In Literature and Film. A Guide to the Theory and Practice of Adaptation, edited by Robert Stam and Alessandra Raengo, 1-52. New York.


Surname, Name. YYYY. “Title of the Journal Article.” Title of the Journal Volume_Number (Issue_Number): Page_Number_Range.

Slugan, Mario. 2013. “The Rhetorics of Interpretation and Žižek’s Approach to Film.” Slavic Review 72 (4): 728-749.


Surname_of_editor, Name_of_editor, ed. YYYY. Title of the Edited Volume. Place of Publication.

Klimeš, Ivan, ed. 2014. Ej, bogatýre Makoviči obrazotvorče… Z korespondence Martina Friče a Jaroslava Žáka. Prague.


Surname_of_editor1, Name_of_editor1 and Surname_of_editor2, Name_of_editor2, eds. YYYY. Title of the Edited Volume. Place of Publication.

Taylor, Richard and Christie, Ian, eds. 1988. The Film Factory. Russian and Soviet Cinema in Documents. Cambridge, MA.


Filmography: use level one heading

Surname_of_director, Name_of_director. YYYY. Title of the Film. Production Company.

Green, Kitty. 2013. Ukraine Is Not a Brothel. Cinephil.


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